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Friday, December 13, 2013

With Their Own Images, South Africans Remember Mandela

South Africans paid their respects in Cape Town, where Nelson Mandela had made his first public speech after nearly three decades in prison. Keenon Daniels South Africans paid their respects in Cape Town, where Nelson Mandela had made his first public speech after nearly three decades in prison. 

Since the 10-day period of mourning began after the death of Nelson Mandela last week, tens of thousands of people across South Africa took to the streets, waving flags and posters. They stood in the driving rain at a soccer stadium and attended a concert in Cape Town. For three days, thousands of people filed past his glass-topped coffin in Pretoria to pay their final respects to the country’s first black president, the man who brought an end to apartheid and unified the country.

Many people documented their experience in recent days. Here’s a look at how some of our readers in South Africa responded to a request to share the events through their eyes, combined with photos posted on social networks.

In Johannesburg, where a crowd gathered outside Mr. Mandela’s home shortly after the announcement of his death, people captured pictures of moments and memorials to the former president.

An interracial couple kissed at a memorial outside Mr. Mandela's home in Johannesburg.Ihsaan Haffejee An interracial couple kissed at a memorial outside Mr. Mandela’s home in Johannesburg.
A little boy in Johannesburg juxtaposed with an image of Mr. Mandela. Samantha Oh A little boy in Johannesburg juxtaposed with an image of Mr. Mandela. 
Hundreds gathered at a memorial outside Mr. Mandela's home in Johannesburg.Christopher J. Lee Hundreds gathered at a memorial outside Mr. Mandela’s home in Johannesburg.
Women sang in celebration of Mr. Mandela's life outside his home in Johannesburg, a day after the news of his death. David DiGregorio Women sang in celebration of Mr. Mandela’s life outside his home in Johannesburg, a day after the news of his death. 

At the soccer stadium in Soweto, where President Obama was among the world leaders to remember Mr. Mandela on Tuesday, Christina Primke of Cape Town and Cornell Tukiri of Johannesburg captured the exuberance in the crowd while Thulani Mbele noted the deep emotion among mourners.

Tens of thousands of South Africans gathered in the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday to pay tribute to Mr. Mandela.Christina Primke Tens of thousands of South Africans gathered in the FNB Stadium in Soweto on Tuesday to pay tribute to Mr. Mandela.
Men sang together to remember Mr. Mandela at the service Tuesday in Soweto.Cornell Tukiri Men sang together to remember Mr. Mandela at the service Tuesday in Soweto.
A woman at the memorial service for Mr. Mandela in Soweto on Tuesday.Thulani Mbele A woman at the memorial service for Mr. Mandela in Soweto on Tuesday.

Jolanta Ksiezniak was at the memorial concert in Cape Town.

People sang and carried posters of Mr. Mandela during a memorial concert in Cape Town. Jolanta Ksiezniak People sang and carried posters of Mr. Mandela during a memorial concert in Cape Town.

Flags few at half-staff across the country, including in Pretoria, where thousands of people gathered starting Wednesday to pay their final respects.

Flags flew at half-staff across South Africa, including in Pretoria.Chris Stamatiou Flags flew at half-staff across South Africa, including in Pretoria.

On Friday, nearly 50,000 people descended on Pretoria to catch a final glimpse of Mr. Mandela, as my colleagues John Eligon and Alan Cowell reported.

But the crowd was so large that not everyone was able to file past the coffin before it was removed for the last time.

On Sunday, a state funeral is scheduled in Qunu, the village where Mr. Mandela grew up. It is to be the last moment in the national mourning period.

Pedro Ugarte, who is the head of photographer for Agence France-Presse Asia-Pacific, posted a picture of a young boy in Qunu watching the preparations for Sunday’s service.

American Who Killed for Iran’s Revolution in 1980 Resurfaces in C.I.A. Spy Drama

Dawud SalahuddinA still image from the 2006 documentary “American Fugitive: The Truth About Hassan,” showing Dawud Salahuddin, an American who fled to Iran in 1980 (a/k/a David Theodore Belfield and Hassan Abdulrahman).

As my colleague Barry Meier reports, the Central Intelligence Agency contractor who disappeared during a trip to Iran in 2007, Robert Levinson, had traveled there to meet with a man whose life story could provide Hollywood screenwriters with material for a sequel to “Argo”: an African-American convert to Islam who fled to Tehran in 1980 after assassinating an enemy of Iran’s revolutionary government who had taken refuge in a Washington suburb.

The American fugitive, who changed his name from David Theodore Belfield to Dawud Salahuddin when he converted to Islam at the age of 18, but has also called himself Hassan Abdulrahman, discussed his various names in 2006, when he was interviewed by the French-Canadian filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond for the documentary “American Fugitive: The Truth About Hassan.”

The trailer for “American Fugitive: The Truth About Hassan” a documentary about Dawud Salahuddin made in 2006 by Jean-Daniel Lafond.

As regular readers of The Lede might recall, Mr. Salahuddin is the son of a churchgoing Baptist family from Bay Shore, Long Island who first worked on behalf of the Islamic Republic of Iran when it was little more than a year old. In 1980, he was a security guard at an Iranian diplomatic office in Washington when he accepted an assignment from the new theocratic government of Iran to assassinate a former aide to the Shah suspected of plotting with fellow exiles in Bethesda, Md.

At first, Mr. Salahuddin recalled in an interview with The New Yorker in 2002, he had tried to convince the Iranians to let him kill a more prominent American target. He suggested either Henry Kissinger or Kermit Roosevelt â€" a grandson of President Theodore Roosevelt who had orchestrated the 1953 plot to depose Iran’s prime minister, Mohammad Mossadegh, and return the Shah to power. But his Iranian handlers were less concerned with striking a symbolic blow than with eliminating Ali Akbar Tabatabai, the exile who was holding meetings of a counter-revolutionary group at his home in Bethesda at the time.

Disguised as a mailman, Mr. Salahuddin showed up at Mr. Tabatabai’s front door on July 22, 1980, shot and killed him and then fled to Iran by way of Canada and Switzerland. In the three decades since, he has compiled an extraordinary resume in Iran, working by turns as an English teacher, a war correspondent and a Web editor. He also found time to fight alongside the Afghan mujahedeen in their war against the Soviets in the 1980s and act in a film by one of Iran’s leading directors in 2000.

Mr. Levinson, the C.I.A. contractor, was put in touch with Mr. Salahuddin in 2007 by Ira Silverman, a retired NBC investigative producer who had interviewed the fugitive for The New Yorker five years earlier. Although his life in Iran since 1980 is shrouded in mystery, by his own account, Mr. Salahuddin seems to have had ties to some of the country’s leading reformists.

The documentary filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond told Maclean’s magazine in 2006 that Mr. Salahuddin “was close to” a senior member of reformist president Mohammad Khatami’s cabinet, Vice President Massoumeh Ebtekar. Ms. Ebtekar, Iran’s first female vice president, earlier served as a spokeswoman for the hostage-takers at the United States Embassy in Tehran. In 2009, however, she openly expressed her dismay at the government crackdown following the disputed presidential election on her blog, “Persian Paradox.”

Two decades after he became an assassin, Mr. Salahuddin once again made headlines in his native country when tried his hand at acting, playing the part of an African-American convert to Islam in the Iranian director Mohsen Makhmalbaf’s film about Afghanistan, “Kandahar.” In 2001, when the film was released to great acclaim after the Sept. 11 attacks, a relative of the man Mr. Salahuddin killed in Bethesda recognized him on screen, even though he appeared in the credits as Hassan Tantai.

DESCRIPTIONA still frame from the Iranian film “Kandahar,” in which the American fugitive played a doctor working in Afghanistan.

In an excerpt from the documentary “American Fugitive” posted on YouTube, Mr. Salahuddin explained how his role in the film reminded prosecutors in Maryland that he had still not been apprehended.

An exceprt from the 2006 documentary “American Fugitive,” about the life story of Dawud Salahuddin, an American born David Theodore Belfield.

After Mr. Salahuddin was recognized, an article in Time magazine headlined, “A Killer in ‘Kandahar?’” was featured in an Iranian newspaper. In response, Mr. Makhmalbaf wrote an essay for The Guardian in which he argued that the assassination of a man he called “a prominent member of the Shah’s secret police â€" the Savak,” had to be understood in context. “This was at a time when the entire Iranian nation was searching for members of Savak in order to destroy them for having been chiefly responsible for their misery, in much the same way as Americans are hunting members of Al Qaeda now.”

For his part, Mr. Salahuddin told The New Yorker in 2002 that he had killed Mr. Tabatabai but argued “It was an act of war,” not murder.

By late 2009, however, he described the killing in different terms in an interview with The Times of London. The American, then married to an Iranian woman and living outside Tehran, told the British newspaper that there was nothing “great,” in what he’d done. “What’s great work about killing a man?” he asked rhetorically. “It’s pretty easy in the modern age. You think it’s great that the Americans have killed a million people in Iraq? Or that they are getting killed every day and killing hundreds of people in Afghanistan?” What, he asked with an expletive, “is great about that?”

At that turbulent moment, when Iran’s reformists were being shot in the streets, he also took a risk by making critical remarks about the state broadcaster, before adding, “I’m living in a situation right now that’s a little bit difficult.”

Later that year, the New Yorker correspondent Jon Lee Anderson wrote that during a reporting trip to Iran that year “the most outspoken person I met, curiously, was not an Iranian reformist but a fellow-American,” Mr. Salahuddin.

In one of their conversations in Tehran, Mr. Anderson recalled, the American fugitive said bluntly, “I don’t personally like Ali Khamenei,” the country’s supreme leader. He also paraphrased a thought from a revolutionary tract of 1968, Paulo Freire’s “Pedagogy of the Oppressed,” saying, “If you undertake a revolution and it is not taken for the sake of humanity, then you will end up imitating the people you succeed.” He went on to frankly criticize the theocracy the revolution had put in place in scathing terms. “The mullahs have industrialized the religion and turned it into a money-making venture, and they are the main beneficiaries,” he said. “The mullahs’ corruption is what has undermined people’s religious faith.”

Two years later, Scott Peterson of The Christian Science Monitor, reported that Mr. Salahuddin “has a host of contacts throughout Iran’s regime and its intelligence services, but is often very critical of the Islamic Republic and the unfulfilled promises of its revolution.” In a telephone interview with Mr. Peterson, the American who has now spent more than half his life in Iran, suggested that the bluster over Iran’s military prowess should not be taken too seriously. “For all the noise that comes out of this country, the Iranians know full well they are no military match for the Americans; they know that better than they know their names,” he said.

‘Affluenza’ Sets Off a Linguistic Contest

One of the more lighthearted reactions to a well-off Texas teenager’s being granted probation after killing four people while driving drunk has been a quest online to create terms equivalent to “affluenza” to explain the actions of poorer, nonwhite defendants.

Affluenza was the word used by a psychologist, G. Dick Miller, during sentencing in the Texas trial. Acknowledging how the term had attracted intense scrutiny, Dr. Miller tried to define it as a term for someone who has “too much.”

“I wish I had not used that term,” he said in a CNN interview on Thursday. “Everyone seems to have hooked on to it.”

One reason is the sense that many people have, according to what they are posting online, that the scales of justice are weighted toward the wealthy and the white â€" a serious charge that has led to a number of whimsically and sometimes bitter linguistic sendups.

On Dec. 10, a judge gave the teenager 10 years of probation for causing the wreck in Burleson, Tex., according to a statement from the Tarrant County district attorney’s office.

The district attorney’s statement did not use the term “affluenza” and it did not make clear to what extent, if at all, the notion influenced the judge’s decision. “She told the court that she will not release the teen to his parents, but will work to find an intensive, long-term treatment facility for the teen and will place appropriate probation conditions on him in the near future,” the statement said.

Juvenile information is generally confidential under Texas law, and the reason for a judge’s decisions is privileged, a spokeswoman said in an emailed message. But as the case was shared online, speculation arose as to how the judge had ruled in previous teenage violence cases.

The perceived lack of justice for the victims of the white teenage motorist seemed to inspire a new lexicon on Twitter. The trending topics included permutations of words playing on “affluenza” that could apply to less advantaged defendants.

Goldie Taylor, a journalist and contributor to MSNBC.com, shared on her Twitter feed some of the debate around the possible terms.

Other permutations on a possible new defense term based on family financial standing were put forth in a conversation thread in which she suggested, with sarcasm, a play on the words “broke.”

The debate on Twitter was not just around would-be legal terms, but also other possible, fancifully vivid descriptors. Instead of diabetes, there could be “brownbetes.” How about “negropox?” “Poornesia?” So wrote Anselm Fernandez, a New York City resident, on his Twitter feed.

According to a report by The Associated Press, the term affluenza was popularized in the late 1990s by Jessie O’Neill, the granddaughter of a past president of General Motors, when she wrote the book “The Golden Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence.”

It’s since been used to describe a condition in which children â€" generally from richer families â€" have a sense of entitlement, are irresponsible, make excuses for poor behavior, and sometimes dabble in drugs and alcohol, explained Dr. Gary Buffone, a Jacksonville, Fla., psychologist who does family wealth advising.

But Dr. Buffone said in a telephone interview Thursday that the term wasn’t meant to be used as a defense in a criminal trial or to justify such behavior.

“The simple term would be spoiled brat,” he said â€" which is what G. Dick Miller, the psychologist who famously used the term in the Texas case, said on CNN.